The Oneg Estate and hamlet of the same name were located on the left bank of the River Volkhov, 31 km north of Novgorod. The Oneg area has been inhabited for a long time. According to archeologists, people settled there several millennia ago. Oneg is first mentioned in chronicles in 1500: it was the name of a village and a stream. The village of Oneg belonged to the Petrovsky parish and had only one peasant homestead subject to taxes and duties. And Nad Onegom, part of the Antonovsky parish, had two peasant homesteads. The name of this village comes from a stream. Oneg means “stream, rapid flow” in Finno-Ugric. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the estate was part of Podberyozskaya Volost (District) of the Novgorod Province. Until 1855, the land and the village of Oneg belonged to the Obolyaninov family, well-known gentry in the Novgorod Province. Yevdokia Obolyaninova, daughter of Novgorod Governor Stepan Obolyaninov, was the last member of the family to own the estate. From the mid-19th century, the Oneg Estate was owned by the Butakov family, which was included in the noble genealogy book of the Novgorod Province, where the families of the military nobility and ancient noble families were recorded. The first Butakov owner of the Oneg Estate was Major General Pyotr Butakov. In 1836, he was appointed to the Arakcheyev Cadet Corps, where he served for 29 years. In 1849, Pyotr Butakov married Sofya Litvinova, and their only daughter Lyubov was born the same year. Lybov Butakova married First Lieutenant Vasily Rachmaninoff, a landowner and a retired life guard who served with the Grodno Hussar Regiment. Until 1877 they lived in the Semyonovo Estate, which belonged to Lyobov Rachmaninoff: she received it as dowry from her father, Pyotr Butakov, according to the deed of 1868. Sergei was the fourth child in the family, after Yelena, Sofia, and Vladimir. Later, Lyubov and Vasily had more children: Varya died as an infant, and Arkady was the youngest. In 1877, after the death of Pyotr Butakov, the Rachmaninoffs moved to the Oneg Estate. The master house in Semyonovo was put up for sale.
Later Dr Anton Rokhel, a state councillor, bought the Oneg Estate from Lyubov and became the next owner of Oneg.
In the late 19th century, the estate passed to the Muravyov family. In 1906, it was acquired by Nikolai Muravyov, son of Senator Muravyov and grandson of former Novgorod Governor Nikolai Muravyov. In the land register of the Novgorod District administration for the estates of noblemen, commoners, merchants, bourgeois and various institutions written no later than in 1909 stated that the Oneg Estate belonged to Nikolai, Alexander, Valeryan, and Nikolai Muravyovs. In 1909, Valeryan Muravyov rented out the estate to Fritz Netlov. The rental terms were drawn up for a period from 15 February 1909 to 15 February 1919 with a fee of 700 roubles per year. When the estate was nationalised, a statement was drawn up dated on 30 February 1917. Valerian Muravyov was indicated as the owner, but the estate was listed as a lease to Fyodor Netlov.
By 1924, the Oneg Estate was among the 496 Novgorod Province estates protected by the Provincial Committee for the Protection of Museums and Landmarks. In 1924 the estate was leased to Yekaterina Markvart. In 1926, the Land Property Administration of the Novgorod District Executive Committee transferred the land of the estate to her to make use of its production potential. According to Yekaterina Markvart’s statement, the sale of the Oneg Estate house to her for the appraisal value was considered at a meeting of the Novgorod Province land property administration on December 22, 1926. According to the agreement drawn up by a commission of representatives of the district and village councils, the value of the house was estimated at 500 roubles. Yekaterina’s request was granted.
Later the estate housed a state farm office, the Kalinin Orphanage, and the Oneg Pioneer Camp. During the Great Patriotic War, it was occupied by the Nazi troops. The house was destroyed to its foundations.
The Oneg Estate house was a typical house of a noble family in the first quarter of the 19th century. It is a wooden building painted with ochre. The building’s composition includes a mezzanine. The Oneg manor house is an example of late Classicism. Functionally, the house was divided into the front, residential and service parts. The front and sometimes the residential parts had an enfilade. Usually the front and residential parts were separated by a hallway. This small hallway was also on the plan of the Oneg house. In the hallway, there was usually a staircase to the mezzanine. In the Oneg house, the front suite consists of three rooms. The reception room was perpendicular to the front suite. There was an exit from the reception room to the anteroom and outside through the inner and outer vestibule. The doors of the front suite were moved closer to the windows.
The sitting room of the house had corner fireplaces, which were placed symmetrically opposite the windows to soften the corners of the room and create an enclosed space. In Oneg, many utility rooms, such as kitchen, were moved outside the house. Some of them were located in the basement, which had very thick stone walls because they served as the foundation of the entire house.
In addition to the manor house, the estate had the following buildings: a wooden winter house with four rooms and a kitchen on a stone foundation, covered with roofing felt; a barn for 60 animals covered with a wooden roof, and a hut for workers next to it; a grain barn; a log drying house and a threshing floor with a wing with a horse-drawn threshing machine; six log sheds to store hay; a straw barn, a laundry; cellars and a spare hut.
The estate covered quite a large territory. It was surrounded with a fence made of centuries-old fir trees. Guests could enter the estate from the Novgorod-St Petersburg road. About a hundred metres of the road near the estate were paved with cobblestones, with lindens and acacia trees planted on either side.
There was a flowerbed in front of the house. A beautiful linden-lined walkway led down to the bay from it, from two ponds dug out on both sides of it at the end of the park. Another driveway ran parallel to the central walkway, along the edge of the ravine. It was lined with linden and maple trees. There was a circular space, 15-20 m in diameter, between these two walkways, just 20 m away from the southeast corner of the house. A wall of lindens was planted thickly around it. It was called the green sitting room, a popular element in the early 19th century parks. There were benches and small tables in green sitting rooms where the hosts served tea and received visitors.
Part of the grounds was covered with orchards. There was a small orchard to the west of the house, and a large one to the left of the central linden alley. There were also two kitchen gardens on both sides of the house, in the west. They were surrounded by acacia hedges.
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